Tamishraha Bagchi* and Sejal Chauhan Pages 130 - 139 ( 10 )
Nanotechnology has immensely contributed towards the advancement of almost all the fields where it has been used. The fascinating properties such as small size, high surface area, mechanical strength etc. have been widely exploited for its specific applications. In medicine, several nanotechnology-based devices and formulations have been developed for point of care diagnosis and targeted treatment. The properties of metal nanoparticles such as surface plasmon resonance, conductivity, magnetic field have been used in enhancing the sensitivity of bionanosensors. Thus, the bionanosensor with enhanced sensitivity has been used in diagnosis to detect various analytes up to picomolar concentrations. Polymeric nanoparticles are biocompatible and biodegradable and therefore have been used in drug delivery. Ligand decorated nanocarriers loaded with various drugs have been used for target specificity. Additionally, response to stimuli such as pH, the temperature has allowed the use of nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery and improved the bioavailability of drug at the site. The nanocarriers with a combination of metal and polymers have been used for the dual purpose of diagnosis and treatment. Nanovaccines have also been produced wherein nanoparticles with low immunogenicity and good adjuvant property have enhanced the delivery and immunogenicity of antigen for immunization. Tuberculosis (TB) is among the deadliest communicable diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (m.tb). Due to the complicated pathophysiology of m.tb, the diagnosis is extremely difficult during the early stages of infection and therefore the treatment prolongs. Several nanotechnology-based approaches for diagnosis and treatment of TB have been discussed in this review. Also, several approaches in other diseases and its potential application in TB have been discussed.
Tuberculosis, nanotechnology, nanoparticles, imaging, targeted drug delivery, nanovaccines.
School of Nano Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Sector 30, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 382030, School of Nano Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Sector 30, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 382030